Advice / Education

What causes incontinence?

Millions of Australians suffer from incontinence, yet many people don’t really know what causes it. Like many conditions, there is often no single cause but rather a range of factors that – individually or combined – may result in a person suffering from incontinence. Here are some of the most common ones.

Muscle weakness

Your body’s urinary system helps control when you go to the toilet. This system includes your bladder, your pelvic floor muscles and your urethra, which is the tube connecting your bladder to your genitals.

 

Nerve signals from the bladder to the brain tell your body when your bladder is full and also when to open the sphincter-like muscles that keep your urethra closed, so you empty your bladder at the right time.

 

Any weakness in your body’s urinary system, weak pelvic floor muscles or a weak bladder, for example, can result in urine leaking from your urethra at the wrong time.

Ageing

As we age, our bladders are able to hold less urine, and this means we need to go to the toilet more frequently. Older people may experience stress incontinence (leaking of urine) when coughing, sneezing, laughing, bending or exercising. Sometimes an undiagnosed or persistent urinary tract infection can also be the cause of incontinence in older people.

Pregnancy, childbirth and menopause

The increased weight of the uterus as well as hormonal changes during pregnancy can cause stress incontinence. The muscles needed for bladder control can be weakened during childbirth and bladder nerves and supportive tissue may also be damaged.

 

After menopause, a woman’s body produces less oestrogen – the hormone that helps keep the lining of the bladder and urethra healthy – and incontinence can result when these parts of the urinary system deteriorate.

 

Hysterectomy

Many of the muscles and tissues that support a woman’s reproductive system are the same tissues that support the urinary system. As a result, any surgery to remove the uterus may result in damage to the supporting pelvic floor muscles, and this can lead to incontinence.

 

Disease as a contributor

Neurological conditions such as multiple sclerosis can cause incontinence by impacting the nerve signals between the bladder and the brain. Stroke and spinal injury can also affect these signals and lead to varying degrees of incontinence, depending on the severity of the stroke or spinal injury.

 

Conditions such as Parkinson’s disease and Alzheimer’s disease can cause functional incontinence even though the urinary system is intact. People with dementia often simply forget to go to the toilet.

 

Urinary tract infections, stones in the urinary tract, prolapse and uterine fibroids can also cause incontinence, as can surgery on the bladder or pelvic floor. Consequently, incontinence can be the result of untreated prostate cancer or the drugs used to treat prostate cancer.

 

Temporary incontinence

Incontinence may also be caused by easily controllable factors such as the types of food and drink you consume or the medication you are taking. Alcohol, caffeine, carbonated drinks and foods high in spice, sugar or acid can stimulate your bladder and increase your volume of urine, as can some heart and blood pressure medications and muscle relaxants.

 

There are many factors that can trigger or contribute to incontinence. Understanding the cause of your incontinence is the first step towards managing or resolving the issue.

Are there different types of incontinence?

Not all incontinence is the same. Incontinence can take many forms and, depending on many factors, it can have different triggers or causes. Here are some of the more frequently occurring forms of urinary incontinence, as well as what causes them.

 

Stress incontinence

This happens when we urinate while performing activities that put stress on the bladder, such as exercising, laughing, coughing, sneezing or even during sex. Stress incontinence is often the result of poor pelvic floor control or a weakening of the muscles that support the bladder. It can occur at any stage in life, but it is especially common for women during menopause, pregnancy and after childbirth. At times it can also be side-effects of medication.

 

Urge incontinence

Urge incontinence occurs when we need to urinate so suddenly and urgently that we may not make it to the bathroom in time. Urge incontinence is the result of damaged muscles around the bladder or your brain sending out the wrong signals to the bladder. Again, urge incontinence can occur at any stage in life, but it becomes increasingly common as we get older. 

 

It has been increasingly observed in men. Triggers may include diseases of the central nervous system (like dementia or Parkinson’s disease), bladder stones and urinary tract infections. Sometimes the cause can’t be detected.

 

Overactive bladder

An overactive bladder happens when the muscles in the bladder stop functioning as they should and no longer hold urine properly, forcing us to visit the toilet far more frequently than someone with a healthy bladder. Strictly speaking, an overactive bladder is not a form of incontinence, although incontinence can be a symptom of the condition. It can be caused by drinking too many diuretics, such as coffee and alcohol, and it is a result of some health conditions.

 

Functional incontinence

Unlike other forms of urinary incontinence, functional incontinence happens simply because we don’t know that we need to go to the toilet, can't physically get to the toilet, or can’t find one in time, so we end up urinating where we shouldn’t. It is often caused by the brain not sending out the correct signals and is common in people with dementia or with other mental health conditions. Functional incontinence can also be the result of poor eyesight or limited mobility.

 

Overflow incontinence

Overflow incontinence occurs when the bladder doesn’t empty itself properly, leaving us with excess urine and a feeling of incomplete bladder emptying. This urine can continue to dribble out and leave us wet, without us having any control over it. Overflow incontinence is often caused by a narrowing of, or blockage in, the urethra. It is common in men with prostate cancer or women with pelvic organ prolapse, as well as a number of other common health conditions.

 

Mixed incontinence

This happens when we suffer from more than one type of incontinence simultaneously. While mixed incontinence could be a combination of any of the types, the most common combination is urge incontinence and stress incontinence. This results in the frequent and sudden need to urinate, as well as leakage.

 

Incontinence can develop for many reasons, from the natural ageing process through to pregnancy or surgery. If you think you are suffering from incontinence, visit your GP or a medical professional to accurately diagnose the problem or find the products you need to help keep you comfortable from day to day.

Most common symptoms of incontinence

It embarrasses but it happens. You have wet underwear or smears of faecal matter that you can't control. These accidents or involuntary losses indicate a bladder or bowel weakness – in other words, incontinence.

 

The Continence Foundation of Australia says more than 4.8 million Australians experience bladder or bowel control problems across all age groups – not just the elderly, as is often thought.

 

Symptoms vary from light and moderate – just a slight leak – to severe, with a complete loss of control. These causes vary, as does how easy they are to detect.

 

Nevertheless, the same common symptoms should be monitored whether you have incontinence, care for someone with it or are not yet diagnosed but might be susceptible.

 

Sonya Meyer, national clinical educator at HARTMANN, says that while a complete wetting of yourself or complete emptying of the bowel is “pretty confronting”, you should not ignore moisture in your knickers. "You may think, 'No, it’s not that’. Then it happens a few times and you’ll start wondering, ‘This is happening a lot. Is this really it?’”

Urinary incontinence can be categorised into:

  •      Stress incontinence.

  •      Urge incontinence.

  •      Overflow incontinence.

  •      Functional incontinence.

  •      Mixed incontinence.

Stress incontinence: If urine leaks when you laugh, cough, sneeze, exercise or lift heavy objects, you have stress incontinence. Extra pressure inside the abdomen pushes down on the bladder, especially if, for women, pregnancy or childbirth has weakened your pelvic floor muscles and tissues. Being overweight or obese, taking medications or, for men, having prostate surgery, also contribute to the possibility of developing this type of incontinence.

 

Urge incontinence: Urge incontinence, also known as having an overactive bladder, results from urinary muscle spasms. You'll have a strong need to frequently pass urine, often regularly waking at night to do so. The urge arises from a bladder feeling fuller than it is, contracting too soon and making you want to rush to the toilet, perhaps not getting there in time.

 

An infection through damage to a part of the nervous system or to muscles or a serious condition affecting the nerves such as multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, diabetes or a stroke can lead to this type of incontinence. Its cause, however, is not completely understood though it seems more common as we get older and symptoms can worsen with stress and too much caffeine.

 

Overflow incontinence: With overflow incontinence, on the other hand, the urine dribbles from a bladder you can't empty. It’s frequent or constant. You may feel your bladder is not empty even after going to the toilet, or you may pass urine while asleep.

Weak bladder muscles, nerve damage, constipation, enlarged prostate, tumors and certain medications hindering bladder function can all prevent the full flow of urine. Be advised that an incomplete emptying can lead to infections and other problems.

 

Functional incontinence: This kind of incontinence is when a physical or mental problem literally impacts on how you function, making it difficult to reach the toilet in time either to the location itself or, once there, to take down your pants fast enough. You may have poor eyesight, not helped by poor lighting and inaccessible toilets, or you may have severe arthritis slowing you down and making it hard to take your clothes off.

 

Dementia may mean that you don't recognise where (or what) a toilet is; this is something someone caring for you will be watching closely. If feeling depressed, anxious or angry, you may not even wish to go to the toilet.

 

Mixed incontinence: Sometimes lack of urine control symptoms result from mixed incontinence, a combination of stress and urge incontinence being the most common, especially for women.

 

Faecal incontinence describes leakage from the bowel due to a lack of bowel control. Confusingly, you may have the urge to open the bowel or you may not have the urge, though both result in leaking and often not making it to the bathroom in time. Staining underwear can also result from faecal incontinence. Anal incontinence can also include passing excessive wind involuntarily.

 

Causes vary and include physical problems such as the rectum at the bottom on the large intestine unable to retain the stool long enough to reach the toilet, or the sphincter muscles at the bottom of the rectum not working properly. Others relate to taking certain medications and having surgery, to heavy lifting; weakening pelvic floor muscles; weak back passage muscles due to having babies; getting older; bowel disease; nerve damage especially to those connecting the brain and rectum; severe diarrhea or constipation.

 

Recognize the symptom and then finding the cause of the problem for any type of incontinence is difficult but worthwhile. As HARTMANN’s Meyer says: “It’s that level of acceptance. When it’s light incontinence, we tend to brush it off rather than saying, ‘Hang on a minute; this is happening and I’m going to acknowledge it.’ That denial is the first thing.

 

“The second thing is the stigma around that. It's difficult to say, ‘By the way, did you know I’m actually incontinent?’ or, ‘I keep wetting my pants’. We don’t tend to have that general conversation with other people so it’s important to be more comfortable when it comes to this issue.

 

“If in doubt, seek advice. Ask the questions. It’s not normal to have wet underpants or faecal matter sitting in your pants. While you might think it’s nothing, if it’s repeating then you really need to seek advice because often light incontinence can be cured.”

Do I have incontinence?

Incontinence is not a subject that's often discussed, but it's surprisingly common. There is a myth that only older people can develop incontinence but anyone at any age can be affected by the condition.

 

Have you ever had the urge to go to the bathroom but didn’t quite make it on time? Do you find that bladder leakage prevents you from playing with your children or grandchildren, socialising or doing other things you love? If you’ve ever wondered whether those little dribbles are normal or something to be concerned about, you probably want to read on.

 

Around 4.8 million Australians over the age of 15 live with incontinence and, with the right advice and products, can get on with everyday life without letting it interfere. Some health conditions and life events can put you at an increased risk of developing either urinary or faecal incontinence, from pregnancy and childbirth to menopause and diabetes. While it may cause distress and embarrassment, it’s crucial to realise that there are many ways to manage incontinence and, in some cases, cure it.

 

What is it?

How can I determine whether I have incontinence or if it’s something else, you ask. Before we get into the whys of the condition, it’s important to establish exactly what it is. Any accidental loss of urine from the bladder or involuntary bowel movement is considered incontinence. In the case of urine incontinence, it can range from just a dribble to the complete loss of bladder control. No matter how light the bladder leakage may be, it’s important to realise that it’s not normal and it should be addressed.

 

Do I have incontinence if I’ve only experienced bladder leakage once? Even if you’ve only had one episode of leakage while laughing, coughing or exercising, strictly speaking, you have been incontinent. If it happens once, you should be aware of it; if it happens again, you need to address the issue.

 

Assess the situation

One way of addressing incontinence is to start looking at the circumstances around the involuntary loss of bladder control. Sonya Meyer, national clinical educator at HARTMANN, suggests thinking about the lead-up to the episode and start keeping a diary. The idea is to take note of how many times it happens to see if it has turned into a recurring problem.

 

Remember to register in the diary:

  •      When it happened

  •      What you were doing beforehand

  •      Where you noticed it

  •      How much it was

Taking a closer look at the lead-up can help you determine what your triggers may be. Common scenarios could include picking up your three-year-old child or grandchild and noticing later in the bathroom that there’s been some leakage. If you experience bladder loss when picking things up, you could have stress incontinence (more about the different types later). If you had a sudden urge to go to the bathroom and didn’t have time to get there, this could also be a sign of incontinence. You may not necessarily have any accidents but you find that you have started planning your activities around going to the bathroom. Whilst this is not classed as incontinence if no accidents happen, it can be a lead up.

 

If you know you have an hour-long meeting scheduled and you pop into the bathroom just before to avoid any trouble, this could also be a case of urgency. In this scenario, you would still have an incontinence problem but you’d be managing it by going to the bathroom more frequently to empty your bladder. Some women may notice that they experience incontinence just before their periods, on account of the pelvic floor muscles relaxing during that time.

 

Determine if you have incontinence

The Continence Foundation of Australia came up with this questionnaire to help you determine whether you have incontinence:

  •      Do you sometimes feel you have not completely emptied your bladder?

  •      Do you have to rush to use the toilet?

  •      Are you frequently nervous because you think you might lose control of your bladder or bowel?

  •      Do you wake up twice or more during the night to go to the toilet?

  •      Do you sometimes leak before you get to the toilet?

  •      Do you sometimes leak when you lift something heavy, sneeze, cough or laugh?

  •      Do you sometimes leak when you exercise or play sport?

  •      Do you sometimes leak when you change from a seated or lying position to a standing position?

  •      Do you strain to empty your bowel?

  •      Do you sometimes soil your underwear?

  •      Do you plan your daily routine around where the nearest toilet is?

 Did you answer ‘yes’ to any of the questions? You may have incontinence.

Possible causes for incontinence 

Stress incontinence: Childbirth and pregnancy can weaken the pelvic floor muscles supporting the urethra, causing leakage during activities that put pressure on the bladder. During menopause, oestrogen is produced in lower quantities, this can affect the muscles allowing urine to pass through the urethra.

 

Urge incontinence: If you have a sudden and strong need to urinate, your bladder may be feeling fuller than it actually is. You may also hear this referred to as unstable or overactive bladder. The cause is not fully understood but it seems to become more common as we age. Stress, caffeine and alcohol seem to worsen the symptoms.

 

Chronic retention: If your bladder is unable to empty properly, it may result in frequent leakage of small amounts of urine.

 

Functional incontinence: When a person does not recognise the need to go to the toilet or does not recognise where the toilet is, they may not get to the toilet in time or pass urine in inappropriate places.

 

Faecal incontinence: This may mean you pass faeces at the wrong time. It could also be that you pass wind when you don't mean to or accidentally stain your underwear.

 

Managing incontinence

Even though incontinence can be quite common, it’s important to understand that it’s not normal and there's help available. No matter the cause, you can be treated, better managed and in some cases cured.

 

If you think you could have incontinence, the first thing to remember is that you're not alone. Talk to your doctor or a continence advisor about your symptoms, as they will not go away on their own and may worsen over time. A professional will be able to offer you a solution. The right products will help you gain back your confidence and manage the problem so you can carry on with everyday life as usual.

Is incontinence related to bad odours?

Many people who suffer from incontinence understandably worry about the possibility that they may give off an unpleasant odour.

 

While it’s true that urine leaks can contribute to personal odour problems, there are many simple things that can help you manage your incontinence and ensure personal odour does not become an issue.

 

Consider your diet

Some food and drink, such as asparagus and coffee, can intensify the odour of your urine, so it's advisable to avoid these when possible. Cranberry juice will increase the acidity of your urine, which decreases its odour, so including a glass in your daily diet will help cut down any unwanted urine smells.

 

Take vitamin C and/or deodorising tablets

Vitamin C is an effective urine deodoriser and taking a tablet each day can help reduce the smell of your urine. Specific urine deodorising tablets are also available at most pharmacies.

 

Have regular health checks

Urine odours can intensify as a result of infections in the bladder and urinary system. See your doctor regularly to make sure you don’t have a urinary tract infection or other underlying health issues that could be compounding the challenge of controlling urine odour.

Replace continence pads frequently

Continence pads are specially designed to soak up leaked urine, however you do need to change them regularly to ensure they don’t leak onto underwear, clothing and furniture. Good quality continence pads are designed with advanced materials that help to contain odours in between changes. As long as they are not leaking, you should have no noticeable odour.

 

Choose continence pads that meet your needs

There is a wide range of incontinence products, from pads to pull-up pants to gender-specific pads. Choose a continence product that meets your individual needs. If your incontinence is severe, you will need a highly absorbent pad to keep odours at bay. Wearing pads designed to rapidly soak up urine can also help reduce or eliminate any unpleasant smells.

 

Wash clothing and bed linen frequently

Even small urine leaks can smell unpleasant, so wash your clothing and bed linen frequently to rid them of stains and smells. Soaking clothing and bed linen in a pre-wash soaker can help lift any stains and ensure there is no residual odour after a wash. Line-drying clothing and bed linen can also help eliminate urine-related scents.

 

Don't forget to wash your hands after going to the toilet, change your incontinence pads, and after handling urine-stained clothing or bedding.

 

Eliminate odours at home

Living in an environment free of urine can help keep any personal odour at bay. Deodorise your home using an air freshener or a homemade spray of one teaspoon baking soda, one teaspoon white vinegar and two cups water.

 

Check with someone you trust

Like any type of body odour, it can be difficult to detect it yourself. Ask someone you trust whether or not they notice an odour when they are around you, and take action if the answer is yes.

 

By following these simple methods, you can ensure the challenge of managing your incontinence isn’t compounded by the issue of personal odour.

Most common symptoms of incontinence

If you are suffering from incontinence and need to use a pad, it is always advisable to change it often in order to keep your skin healthy. Most people suffering from urinary incontinence will need to change their continence pads regularly, about four to six times a day. Here’s a look at when you should change your pad and why.

 

Change your pad when it’s wet

You should change your pad as recommended by your healthcare professional. If you are using the correct product you will be changing pads that cater for your absorbency needs and keep your skin integrity at its best. Fortunately, many pads come with wetness indicators, which can let you know when you need to change your continence pad immediately.

 

On some pads, you’ll find this indicator as a blue line on the waterproof backing of the product. If 3/4 of the blue line blurs or disappears, it’s a sign that the pad is wet and you should change it.

 

Why some people also change dry pads

Some incontinence pads are only designed to last no more than three to five hours. Wearing them longer than this can lead to poor skin hygiene and can cause bad odours, or unpleasant conditions such as fungal infections and dermatitis.

 

Not changing your pad frequently may also cause your skin to become irritated and can lead to chafing and may also exacerbate underlying conditions, such as eczema.

 

If your pad does irritate your skin, you should first pat the affected area with a dry towel to make sure it’s entirely dry. Then it’s best to treat it with protective cream or a similar product to soothe the pain and help heal your skin – after a wash, of course.

 

Try to avoid using thick barrier creams on the skin as this can rub off onto the pad and reduce its absorptivity.

 

Skin irritations and infections can easily reappear, even after the area seems to have healed. If the irritation is recurring, make sure to consult your GP or a medical professional.

Changing your pad at night

 At night, you’ll probably find sleep gets in the way of changing your pad every three to four hours. For that very reason, there are pads with higher absorbency that are designed to be worn overnight. These aren’t generally appropriate for day wear because they’re bulkier than regular pads and won’t fit as inconspicuously under your clothes.

 

After you’ve worn the overnight pad for the duration of the night, be sure to change the pad immediately the next day.

 

Living with incontinence can be uncomfortable. To help protect your skin, keep odours contained and ensure that you’re keeping other side effects of incontinence to a minimum, it’s vital that you change your pad as recommended. Seek advice on the types of products that will offer you the discretion and protection you need for different activities and times of the day. Don't forget to immediately treat your skin if it becomes dry or irritable.

How often should I change my pad?

If you are suffering from incontinence and need to use a pad, it is always advisable to change it often in order to keep your skin healthy. Most people suffering from urinary incontinence will need to change their continence pads regularly, about four to six times a day. Here’s a look at when you should change your pad and why.

 

Change your pad when it’s wet

You should change your pad as recommended by your healthcare professional. If you are using the correct product you will be changing pads that cater for your absorbency needs and keep your skin integrity at its best. Fortunately, many pads come with wetness indicators, which can let you know when you need to change your continence pad immediately.

 

On some pads, you’ll find this indicator as a blue line on the waterproof backing of the product. If 3/4 of the blue line blurs or disappears, it’s a sign that the pad is wet and you should change it.

 

Why some people also change dry pads

Some incontinence pads are only designed to last no more than three to five hours. Wearing them longer than this can lead to poor skin hygiene and can cause bad odours, or unpleasant conditions such as fungal infections and dermatitis.

 

Not changing your pad frequently may also cause your skin to become irritated and can lead to chafing and may also exacerbate underlying conditions, such as eczema.

 

If your pad does irritate your skin, you should first pat the affected area with a dry towel to make sure it’s entirely dry. Then it’s best to treat it with protective cream or a similar product to soothe the pain and help heal your skin – after a wash, of course.

 

Try to avoid using thick barrier creams on the skin as this can rub off onto the pad and reduce its absorptivity.

 

Skin irritations and infections can easily reappear, even after the area seems to have healed. If the irritation is recurring, make sure to consult your GP or a medical professional.

Changing your pad at night

 At night, you’ll probably find sleep gets in the way of changing your pad every three to four hours. For that very reason, there are pads with higher absorbency that are designed to be worn overnight. These aren’t generally appropriate for day wear because they’re bulkier than regular pads and won’t fit as inconspicuously under your clothes.

 

After you’ve worn the overnight pad for the duration of the night, be sure to change the pad immediately the next day.

 

Living with incontinence can be uncomfortable. To help protect your skin, keep odours contained and ensure that you’re keeping other side effects of incontinence to a minimum, it’s vital that you change your pad as recommended. Seek advice on the types of products that will offer you the discretion and protection you need for different activities and times of the day. Don't forget to immediately treat your skin if it becomes dry or irritable.

10 questions to ask your doctor about incontinence

Incontinence is a common but extremely treatable and manageable condition that unfortunately, can be embarrassing to discuss. However, speaking to your doctor is a chance to learn more about the condition. At the same 

 

If you think you're suffering from incontinence, here are 10 questions to ask at your next doctor’s visit.

 

1. Are there different type of incontinence?

Yes. Incontinence is classified in three major categories, including:

Stress incontinence: Urine leakage under any 'stress', such as laughing, sneezing, coughing or exercise. Obesity can also put pressure on the bladder leading to stress incontinence.

Urge incontinence or overactive bladder: If nerves from the bladder to the brain are damaged, they can cause a sudden bladder contraction that can’t be consciously controlled.

Mixed incontinence: A combination between stress and urge incontinence leading to a situation where a person might leak during exercise and also feel a strong urge to urinate.

Overflow and functional incontinence are two other types, defined as frequent urine dribble due to an inability to empty the bladder completely and being physically or mentally unable to unbutton your pants in time.

 

2. What causes incontinence?

Incontinence is a symptom, not a disease, meaning it's easily treatable depending on your situation. Thoroughly explaining all your symptoms to your doctor can help you be sure you’re getting the right advice for your condition.

 

3. What should I do to prepare for a doctor’s appointment?

Before heading to your doctor for an appointment, it could save you time if you called ahead to check what you need to do to prepare. Writing down all your symptoms, making a list of any medication you're taking and making a separate list of your medical conditions, and writing down some questions to ask are a few ways you can make the most of your appointment.

4. What kind of tests do I need to take?

Before administering any tests, your doctor will thoroughly ask you about your medical history, and is likely to do a simple physical exam. They may request a urinalysis and for you to keep a bladder diary. Further special testing may be required based on your situation.

 

5. Can medication cause or worsen incontinence?

Some prescription medications may cause or exacerbate incontinence. If you think the medication you’re taking could be associated with your incontinence, be sure to discuss this discuss with your doctor.

 

6. How can I better manage incontinence?

There are many ways to manage incontinence so your day-to-day is less disrupted – this is best discussed with your doctor. In some instances, altering your lifestyle choices might be able to prevent incontinence. You can take steps such as reducing your caffeine intake, quitting smoking or losing weight, which may reduce or eliminate incontinence.

 

7. What are my treatment options?

There are many choices to also treating the symptoms of incontinence. These range from non-invasive techniques, such as bladder training, fluid and diet management and pelvic floor exercises, to medication. Treatment can also include interventional therapies, such as botox or bulking material injections, as well as surgery.

8. How will I know I need surgery?

Incontinence can be managed without surgery, in most cases, which makes this an essential one to ask your doctor. Usually, once you’ve exhausted several other treatment types, you can discuss surgery with your doctor.

 

9. What are the risks and benefits of surgery?

Some general risks of the various incontinence surgeries include injury to the bladder, bowel, blood vessels or nerves, increased chance of urinary tract or wound infections, and continued or exacerbated urinary problems. Some of the benefits of some procedures are same-day surgery, quick recovery times and the end of your symptoms.

 

10. What other treatment options are available to me?

Incontinence products, such as pads and protective inner wear can ease the discomfort and inconvenience of living with incontinence. Your doctor can provide advice on recommended brands or what’s more suitable for your individual condition.